Sunday, May 24, 2020
James GwartneyÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Common Sense Economics, is designed for those who are taking beginning steps to understand the basics of economics. It also provides actual concrete changes that could be made in the economy. This novel gives insight to the bigger picture that involves political rules and policies that go along with that. The context of the book aims to explain why nations prosper depending on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of necessary economic arrangements. There are ten elements of economics, seven sources of economic progress, the role of the government, and twelve key elements of practical personal finance. James Gwartney even acknowledges what he wants students to get out of this text which is that: It will help more advanced students of economics and business pull together the big picture. Advanced student, including some at the graduate level, are often so busy with graphs, formulas, models, and technical mathematical that they fail to understand the really important lessons of economics. Finally, an experienced business executive or a poly maker can also learn much of value from this book. Even those who are highly successful at their jobs often underestimate the far-reaching, typically unintended effects that political rules and policies have on the broader economic health of people and nations (Gwartney ix-x). The information in this book will challenge college students to think more seriously about the really important implications of economicsÃ¢â¬âknowledge that willShow MoreRelatedRisk Return Analysis1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstrong company that has shown the ability to grow, and create dividends for its stock holders consistently. The beta of .73 shows that NikeÃ¢â¬â¢s returns are somewhat similar to that of the markets, but still not enough to be affected by the overall economic situation the market may face. The coefficient variation of 9.37 is not bad, but it does not paint the whole picture when looking at Nike as an individual stock. Merck Co., has a standard deviation of 7.87, which is lower than NikeÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreIs a Common Currency in Europe Sustainable? Essay1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEuropean nations and even the United States. Originally designed to ensure financial stability, the common currency area appears to restrain policymakers both fiscally and monetarily in these times of economic depression when they might benefit most from expansionary policies. A key problem exists with the European Central Bank dictating a unified monetary policy for states experiencing different economic scenarios. How could the European Central Bank effectively meet the needs of Greece and Italy byRead MoreEssay on Liberation Theology in Latin America1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe populist governments, seen in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s in South America, spurred industrial growth and a sense of Ã¢â¬Å"consciousnessÃ¢â¬ amongst the inhabitants of the Latin American countries. The industrial growth great ly benefited the middle-class and the working-class; however, the poor were driven into shantytowns and rural areas. To illustrate the great poverty of this time in Latin America, people living in Ã¢â¬Å"shantytownsÃ¢â¬ resided in vast settlements built of cardboard and other available materialsRead More A PeasantÃ¢â¬â¢s Life1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand two two-year-olds were on the other side, and they all sang one song that was pitiful to hear: they all cried the same cry - a miserable note. The poor man sighed sorely, and said, Ã¢â¬ËChildren be still!Ã¢â¬â¢1 As individuals within a greater society, the peasants of the seventeenth century provided themselves and the remainder of the community with economic and agricultural sustenance in accordance to their constant backbreaking labor and pitifully inferior lifestyle. According to J.F.C. HarrisonRead MoreJohn Millar s Passage The Origin Of The Distinction Of Ranks1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesassociation of the moral-economic and how the slavery isn t advantageous to each other for various legitimate reasons. In the beginning Millar diverges into the topic upon the relationship between those of the master and its servant which is very interesting based on their position of power and financially, they are on two different sides of the scale. Millar goes into 3 methods in which the Master Servant relationship evolved in history over time. The first one is the cause of economic purposes. The masterRead MoreArticle Analysis : Living Life Without Traveling 1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesarray of virtues and cultures that range from exciting and thought provoking to even depressing. However, while Steves notes the positives that precipitate from the aforementioned good travel, he also expresses his disappointment in the many Americans who fail to partake in this enlightened practice. Instead, driven by short term goals and individual economic success, Steves notes many people refrain entirely from travel, or simply choose to travel in a demanding and ethnocentric manner. AccordingRead More432 Obj ectives Wk 11 2002740 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesimplementing a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy Suggested Review Reading for next Class RWJ, Chapter 18 Questions for Next Case (November 18, 2002*, Avon Products) * Note change in date in response to student preferences (1) Evaluate AvonÃ¢â¬â¢s investment and financing decisions in the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Why was Avon restructuring its business in 1988? Did the changes make sense? (2) Evaluate AvonÃ¢â¬â¢s financial condition in mid-1988. Why was Avon reducing its dividend? (3) What was the purpose of the exchange offer? (4)Read MoreTyranny And The Social Wellbeing Of Citizens1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof despotic oppression that threatens the social wellbeing of citizens. Yet another notable differences arises in the approach of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels when they were commissioned to write The Communist Manifesto, which offers a sort of economic tyranny. The key differences in each authorÃ¢â¬â¢s definition and evaluation of tyranny can be explained through the reasons for producing their respective works, as well as the lens through which they each viewed the societies they were observing. Read MoreSummary Of Alien Nation : Common Sense About America s Immigration Disaster1317 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnnotated bibliography Reflection paper Brimelow, Peter. Alien nation: common sense about AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s immigration disaster. (1995). This article talks about immigration and its consequences in America. In addition to this, the paper talks about the reasons behind the ballooning level of immigrants in amerce. Some of the reasons that the article outlines include; search for better employment in the US as they fear their nations which have low levels of employment, escape war from their nationsRead MoreThe Document Common Sense By Thomas Paine1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The document Common Sense by Thomas Paine was written in 1775, and published in 1776. Though, in order to be shared with the public, Thomas Paine had to be inspired first. Some of the more common inspirations were derived from the ideas of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. The main points of Thomas PaineÃ¢â¬â¢s document were to separate from English rule and to form a democratic nation. Some of John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s most common ideas of the human nature were that humans needed independence to thrive, a statement
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Name: Roy Chapman Andrews Born/Died: 1884-1960 Nationality: American Dinosaurs Discovered: Oviraptor, Velociraptor, Saurornithoides; also discovered numerous prehistoric mammals and other animals About Roy Chapman Andrews Although he had a long, active career in paleontology--he was director of the prestigious American Museum of Natural History from 1935 to 1942--Roy Chapman Andrews is best known for his fossil-hunting excursions to Mongolia in the early 1920s. At this time, Mongolia was a truly exotic destination, not yet dominated by China, virtually inaccessible by mass transport, and rife with political instability. During his expeditions, Andrews used both automobiles and camels to traverse the hostile terrain, and he had a number of narrow escapes that added to his reputation as a dashing adventurer (he was later said to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielbergs Indiana Jones movies). Andrews Mongolian expeditions were not only newsworthy; they also immeasurably advancedÃ the worlds knowledgeÃ about dinosaurs. Andrews discovered numerous dinosaur fossils at the Flaming Cliffs formation in Mongolia, including the type specimens of Oviraptor and Velociraptor, but today hes most famous for unearthing the first indisputable evidence of dinosaur eggs (before the 1920s, scientists were unsure if dinosaurs laid eggs or gave birth to live young). Even then, he managed to make a huge (if understandable) blunder: Andrews believed his Oviraptor specimen had stolen the eggs of a nearby Protoceratops, but in fact thisegg thief turned out to be hatching its own young! Ã¢â¬â¹Oddly enough, when he embarked for Mongolia, Andrews did not have dinosaurs or other prehistoric fauna uppermost in his mind. Ã¢â¬â¹Along with his fellow paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn, Andrews believed that the ultimate ancestors of humans originated in Asia, rather than Africa, and he wanted to find indisputable fossil evidence to support this theory. Although its possible that an early offshoot of hominids branched off into Asia millions of years ago, the bulk of the evidence todayÃ is that human beings did in fact originate in Africa. Roy Chapman Andrews is most often associated with his dinosaur discoveries, but he was responsible forÃ excavating and/or naming a respectable number of prehistoric mammals as well, including a specimen of the giant terrestrial grazerÃ Indricotherium and the giantÃ Eocene predator Andrewsarchus (which was named by a paleontologist on one of Andrews central Asian expeditions in honor of his fearless leader). As far as we know, these two mammals were the largest terrestrial herbivore and the largest terrestrial carnivore, respectively, ever to roam the face of the earth.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The Slave CruciblesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"A Federal AssaultÃ¢â¬ provide different perspectives on the experiences of slaves. Ã¢â¬Å"The Slave CruciblesÃ¢â¬ contributes personal insight into the different aspects of the lives of slaves while Ã¢â¬Å"A Federal AssaultÃ¢â¬ exhibits a generalized viewpoint on the effects of laws such as the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 on the majority of the slave population. Both pieces of literature demonstrate the injustices and demeaning treatment towards African Americans during the 19th century. PargasÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"The Slave CruciblesÃ¢â¬ is structured to provide the personal experiences of slaves by including specific examples and testimonies from those who endured slavery or had first hand encounters with enslaved African Americans. By including suchÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, fictive kin and these new established relationships on shared experiences did not completely extinguish the feelings of longing for loved ones or diminish the oppression faced by these people. Reunion with family members was one of the major motives for interstate migrants to escape but sometimes it proved to be more difficult than expected because migrants came from longer distances. Therefore, when attempts to escape were made they were more permanent and Ã¢â¬Å"...fugitives were not intending to Ã¢â¬ËvisitÃ¢â¬â¢ loved ones but rather escape their new destinations for goodÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Pargas 243). These feelings of depression and isolation, removal from loved ones, and demeaning treatment incited many slaves to escape. Escaping was never easy and there were laws set in place to punish those who tried to do so. These laws, specifically the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, and their effects are closely examined in HortonÃ¢â¬â¢s article, Ã¢â¬Å"A Federal Assault.Ã¢â¬ Horton provides a more generalized approach and the use of anecdotes is present but is not as intense as in Ã¢â¬Å"The Slave Crucibles.Ã¢â¬ Horton presents the actions taken by the government and the states in order to deal with fugitives. He examines the impact of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 on the general slave population and the people associated with it. Information is also presented on what was done in order to combat the Fugitive Slave Act and allow African Americans to experience the freedom that theyShow MoreRelatedAccusation And Defense Of The Salem Witchcraft Trials1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHistory 1301-73001-73002 JOE L. MCCAMBRIDGE - HISTORY 1301-1302 One of the most infamous Trial in history took place on March 1, 1692. According, to the Library of Congress, Massachusetts authorities catechized Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and an Indian Slave, Tituba regarding their practice in witchcraft. The trial resulted in more than 150 men and women in and around Salem jailed on charges of practicing Witchcraft and Sorceries. Nineteen of them were men and women who were eventually convicted andRead MoreAnalysis Of Arthur Miller s The Crucible 1052 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesplays for the Federal Theatre, which provided work for unemployed writers, actors, directors, and designers. Miller s creative writing career span was over a sixty year span and during this time, Miller had written twenty-six plays. He wrote The Crucible in 1953 then later wrote the screenplay for the movie version which was produced in 1996 (CliffNotes, Authur Miller Biography). Miller s first play to make it to Broadway was in 1944. It was The Man Who Had All the Luck but it was a dishearteningRead MoreThe Crucible By Arthur Miller1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe quality most necessary in a leader and a catalyst for hysteria is the ability to manipulate. The play The Crucible by Arthur Miller depicts the events that occurred in 1690s in Massachusetts best known as the Salem Witch Trials. These events center on a group of young girls who are found dancing in the woods with a black slave. Among them is Abigail Williams, a 17 year-old-girl desperate to conceal her affair with a married man and escape charges of witchcraft. In an attempt to pull the spotlightRead MoreIllusion Vs Reality Ã¢â¬â The Causticity of Illusion Essay1903 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesexcessively demonstrated in Macbeth, a play written by William Shakespeare, and also in The Crucible, a play written by Arthur Miller. In both plays, the characters that lived illusive lives ultimately ended up leaving behind a trail of ignominy, grief, and death. In Macbeth, it is Macbeth and Lady Macbeth who consistently misinterpret reality as a world that accommodates their malevolent desires. In The Crucible, the entirety of the town of Salem misinterprets reality as a world of supernatural dangerRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials1154 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescontributes little to the story other than setting up a place of symbolism, irony, and character development or revealment.In a couple days of which the play spans, dramatic changes to the social structure of Salem occur. As previously stated, The Crucible, elucidated MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s take on the Salem witch trials at Massachusetts Bay from 1692 to 1693. This particular period and historical setting are vital to understanding the heart truth. This craft enabled me to relate to text better as I learned ofRead MoreA Historical Journey through the American Conscience: The Public and its Courts 1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesissue of slavery was threatening to rip apart the Union at its seams, and where the political landscape had taken to the tactic of problem ignoring, rather than problem solving. Reflecting this tactic, cases involving slavery and the treatment of slaves rarely made it into the courtroom, although it was constantly at the forefront of the court of public opinion. It seemed that everyone desired to keep enslavement as it was, for fear of ruffling the feathers of some dangerous birds. America was, atRead MoreRace And Gender Politics : Purple Hibiscus1487 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand inequality of class and culture. From there, I hoped to comprehend how gender politics was a reflection of Nigerian politics and its gender perceptions in the social structure as a whole. As my work proceeded, however, a third dimension of analysis became equally significant, for it became clear that, as much as African women in this novel speak from physical environments shaped by race, there is also an element of silence, censorship and domestic violence. The narrative of this novel, theRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Winthrop Delivered Sermon Called A Modell Of Christian Charity2205 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesin Bradford s piece, it becomes the main point of interest and analysis as I read it. Have you ever watched an award show, and when someone wins an Oscar, Grammy, Tony, etc., they thank God, and you wonder why they would blindly attribute their remarkable successes to something so intangible? That s what I was thinking when I read this short section, and that s why I chose to include the first quote in this reflection and analysis. The pilgrims give all the credit to God for their survival acrossRead MoreSupernatural in American Fiction Essay2928 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesMankind would never submit to this. He will immediately turn to the darkness. Drawn by his own cords of fear and longing, man will imagine that he is tired of the light and his small, familiar world.3 No amount of rationalization... or Freudian analysis can overcome the thrill of the chimney-corner whisper or the lonely wood.4 Why? Children will always be afraid of the dark and men will always shudder at what they do not understand, yet everyone will continue to seek it. Perhaps it is becauseRead MoreEssay The Salem Witchcraft Trials of 16924260 Words Ã |Ã 18 Pagesgovernment in Africa, Salem town council in Salem village), and new opportunities for betterment which are not evenly distributed throughout the population, causing increased social inequality. There have been three basic approaches taken to the analysis of the Salem witch trials. Scholars have sought psychological and biological explanations for the symptoms displayed by the bewitched girls. Sexual repression in Puritan New England, the low status of women, especially young women, in the community
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Should a moment of silence be legal in public scho Essay ols?In 1962 the Supreme Court decided that public schools did not have the power to authorize school prayer. This decision made public school in the U.S. more atheistic than many European nations. For example, crosses still hang on the classroom walls in Poland, and the Ten Commandments are displayed in Hungary. There are prayers held at the beginning of legislative and judicial sessions and every President has mentioned a divine power in his inaugural speech. In keeping with a spirit of religious freedom as stated in the First Amendment, there is no reason why students should not be allowed to have a moment of silence during the school day when they can pray or do as they choose.The case Engel v. Vitale in 1962 decided that school prayer is unconstitutional. With this case, it was pointed out that the students were to voluntarily recite the following prayer:Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parents, our teachers, and our country. The court ruled that this rule was unconstitutional according to the First Amendments establishment clause, which states Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. In response to the Engel v.Vitale case some schools adopted a moment of silence. In 1963, another case was brought before the court dealing with school prayer, Abington School District v. Schempp. The Schempp family challenged a law in Pennsylvania requiring the students to say ten verses of the Bible before school. These readings from the Bible were declared unconstitutional. Members of the board felt reading the Bible would give the children more moral values. The Schempp family strongly disagreed. Members of Congress attempted to find a compromise. From this effort came the adoption of the moment of silence, which is guaranteed by the First Amendments Free Exercise clause. Six states now permit silent moments-Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama. Silent prayer was ruled constitutional in 1985 as long as it had no religious intent or purpose. (Newsweek, October 3, 1994)Prayer has been banned in schools for thirty-three years. The moment of silence has been ruled constitutional, however. Every student fills a moment of silence in a different way: through song, a prayer, or a memory.
Saturday, April 4, 2020
Genetically Altered Food Genetic modification of organisms in general is a biotechnological process that forces genes to behave according to certain characteristics. Changing characteristics of organisms is based on changing their DNA (tech deoxyribonucleic acid; the acid which carries genetic information in a cell). It is being used for modifying genes in plants, animals or micro-organisms. It is being also used especially with food in order to improve the nutritious quality, make less use of chemicals such as pesticides, which proved to be extremely harmful, and sometimes to add flavour. Genetically modified food (GMF) is considered one of the modern production improvements and the largest food experiments in the world's history. However, it is very vital to dispel misconception about the nature of food. GMF is a mixed blessing which has a lot of benefits but at the same time may arouse problems. It has many good aspects, such as making plants ripen faster, improving the specie's taste and look, and providing Third World countries with healthier and cheaper food. Genetic modification of food has won the admiration of a lot of people, including myself, because of its new and attractive accomplishments, but at the same time we should take into consideration its disadvantages and try to find ways to avoid them. Genetically modified foodstuffs have several disadvantages which I believe are possibly avoidable through research and experiments. Most of the time, the sale of GMFs is being permitted without posing the risks and without informing the public with the possible danger. This of course is a violation of human rights which can Nagi2 easily be avoided by simply informing consumers of the characteristics of the product. When genetic engineers insert new genes into any organism, it can lead to disruption and unpredictable changes in the pattern and structure of the new genetic function. "In fact, the process of inserting genes is quite random and can damage normal genes " (Genetic Engineered Food - A Serious Health Risk 3). Therefore, harmful substances may appear unexpectedly and can possibly create viruses and new dangerous diseases. Therefore, it is the obligation of experts to examine GM products before making them available to the public in order to avoid undesirable diseases. A common example is, when some people who are allergic to certain kinds of food such as fish eat genetically modified products such as tomatoes which were injected with genes similar to these fish, they get easily affected by allergens. Also, GMFs might contain toxins, which may negatively affect human beings. An experiment run on rats by feeding them with GM potatoes affected their digestive tracks caused changes in some of their organ weights and caused adverse effects on their immune system(south pacific consumer protection programme1). Such experiments show the importance of thoroughly examining GM products and making sure of their safety on humans. In addition to that, there are long-term effects with reasons not yet identified. That could also be avoided by further research and continued experiments. GMF is now entering the market with an increasing rate. Products include tomatoes, corn, potatoes and soybeans. A main problem is that the issue of labelling these products is not yet widely used. Most developed countries have adopted laws Nagi 3 that require product labelling of ingredients, fats, vitamin, protein and carbohydrate. These nutrition information provides consumers with a level of awareness and choice. Similarly, GMF producers are obliged to label their products. They have to provide their customers with all necessary information about the produce. This is the least that could be done to preserve the rights of consumers to know and decide for themselves. Labelling is then one possible choice that could help in avoiding some of the GMFs dangers. People have the right to know if the food they are consuming is genetically modified whether it is a matter of health, preference or just a matter of taste" Surveys consistently find that 85-90 % of consumers want clear labelling of all genetically engineered foods"(Genetic Engineered Food- A Serious Health Risk 2). Moreover, it is necessary to label food if the nutritional content is changed. Take tomatoes for example; they are a source of Vitamin C, but if through modification they lose this characteristic (Vitamin C ), consumers definitely have the right to know. The wrong treatment of GM crops may cause several environmental risks. It was proved that GM crops are easy to grow in most kinds of soils. They can grow in land that is prone to drought or erosion in addition to soils with highly salt acid conditions. They are also capable
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Cultural Conflicts in Wide Sargasso Sea 1Cultural Conflicts in Wide Sargasso SeaTayo's experience returning to New Mexico after World War II and Rochester's presence in the Caribbean are excellent examples of characters being torn between being an outsider and being a welcome member of society. Both Tayo as well as Rochester experience being torn from their own cultures. Tayo going to war separates him from his culture while Rochester's going to the Caribbean to find a wife pulls him out of his British culture. Rejection by their families plays a central role in making Tayo and Rochester feel estranged. Dealing with their masculinity is also a problem in both characters stories. Tayo and Rochester both lack a true father figure which makes becoming a man much more difficult. There are many similarities between Tayo and Rochester and their struggles with being torn between cultures, rejected by their families, and coming to terms with their own gender issues.English: High Falls Rochester NYThe similarities between Tayo and Rochester being torn between cultures is contrasted by the fact that Tayo is desperately trying to figure out his identity while Rochester was taken from his English culture and placed in the Caribbean. Throughout his childhood, Tayo is faced with many obstacles that end with him losing his identity. Tayo desperately tries to find balance between his pride in his Indian heritage and his shame for being half-white. Growing up, Tayo goes to Indian school where most of the teachers were Anglo and try to pull him and his cousin Rocky away from their Indian culture by telling them "not to believe in that kind of 'nonsense'"(Silko 19). His cousin Rocky is accepted by the white community because of his status as a football star; and so, in turn, Rocky starts to leave his Indian heritage behind. Tayo looks up to...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Managing Operations and Finance - Essay Example Moving forward, the paper presents a comparison of the current and last year financial performance of the company through financial statement ratio analysis. The primary reason to conduct a ratio analysis is to quantify the results of the operations of a company and compare them with that of the prior year(s) in order to assess different aspects of the financial feasibility. The ratios are divided into profitability, liquidity and gearing ratios. The paper identifies the areas, through ratio analysis, where the company is performing well and where it needs improvements. In conclusion the paper presents a comparison of the financial and operational performance of Marks and Spencer with one of its primary competitors, Debenhams. Major financial ratios are compared and in addition, historical share prices are also analyzed of both companies in order to identify which company has a better market capitalization and better reputation from investorÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. Operating Performanc e of the Company Marks and Spencer, an internationally recognized name considered analogous for high fashion and trend setting quality. Marks and Spencer is regarded as the premier retailer in the United Kingdom catering more than 21 million customers. Keeping in pace with the globalization, the company is planning to expand its business in other frontiers. As per the audited financial statement of the company for the financial year 2010, the company employees more than 76,000 and has its operations expanded to more than 41 countries in the world. Marks and SpencerÃ¢â¬â¢s well established business attracts a great deal of consumer base irrespective of demography. The primary business of the company comprises of selling general merchandise which mainly consists of womenswear, menswear and an expanding kidÃ¢â¬â¢s wear. The company, through its resilient and effective marketing tactics, has able to capture market share of around 11.0% by value and 11.2% by volume. Another source fr om where the company earns a great deal of its revenue is through selling food items. Marks and Spencer is the leading provider when it comes to selling fine quality food. The company sells everything from fresh meals to canned food items, highly acclaimed and praised range of wines to other groceries products. The company has improved its shelf availability and has adopted the strategy of renewing its food range. The proactive approach has resulted in an increase of 1.8% in sales revenue from food business. The financial year 2010 proved to be another progressive year for Marks and Spencer. During the current year, Marks and SpencerÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue increased by 5.2% during the current year to an impressive ?9.5 billion which has caused the operating profit to increase by 9.8%. The company, following its growth strategy, aspires transform its operation into multi channel business. The company has taken major steps in investing its direct sales business which enhanced the revenue by 27% during the current financial year. In addition, the company is actively following its strategy of refurbishing its stores and giving them a new and improved look. The refurbishment has resulted in an increased storage space and has created a fashionable shopping environment. The following table compares the financial results of Marks and Spencer, for