Wednesday, August 26, 2020

10 Quotes to Help Celebrate a 30th Birthday

10 Quotes to Help Celebrate a 30th Birthday Some like a major sprinkle, others like a calm undertaking, yet most everybody loves their birthday festivities. On the off chance that you like birthday celebrations, even the morning of your birthday appears the best morning of the year. Regardless of whether a cloud takes steps to detonate in the skies, you wake up feeling cheerful. You rapidly experience your birthday welcome that come as instant messages, calls, and web-based social networking posts. What's more, isnt it brilliant to get blossoms or a wonderful birthday cake, with a Happy Birthday card in it? You thank each and every individual who recollected your birthday. You feel a feeling of euphoria when you offer thanks to your friends and family. For what reason Do We Enjoy Celebrating Birthdays? When a year, you find the opportunity to be unique. Companions, family, and friends and family wish you satisfaction, great wellbeing, and thriving. They give you love, consideration, blessings, and treats. They invest energy with you and offer your joy. The 30th birthday celebration is exceptional. You are presently formally an experienced and dependable grown-up who has the fundamental intelligence to settle on significant choices throughout everyday life. The 30th birthday celebration proclaims your grown-up status with estimated guilty pleasure. Here are some significant statements that put issues in the correct point of view, prepared to partake in birthday cards and on cakes, during celebratory toasts, and that's just the beginning. Muhammad Ali The man who sees the world at 50 equivalent to he did at 20 has squandered 30 years of his life. Hervey Allen The main time you truly live completely is from 30 to 60. The youthful are captives to dreams; the old, workers of disappointments. Just the moderately aged have all their five faculties in the keeping of their brains. Unknown At 20 years old, we dont care what the world considers us; at 30, we stress over what it is considering us; at 40, we find that it wasnt considering us by any stretch of the imagination. Georges Clemenceau All that I realize I learned after I was 30. Charles Caleb Colton The abundance of our childhood are checks composed against our age, and they are payable with intrigue 30 years after the fact. F. Scott Fitzgerald Thirty-the guarantee of a time of dejection, a diminishing rundown of single men to know, a diminishing attaché of energy, diminishing hair. Benjamin Franklin At 20 years old, the will rules; at 30, the mind; and at 40, the judgment. Robert Frost Time and tide hang tight for no man, yet time consistently stops for a lady of 30. Elbert Hubbard Ones 30th birthday celebration and ones 60th are days that press their message home with iron hand. With his 70th achievement past, a man feels that his work is done, and diminish voices call to him from over the Unseen. His work is done, thus illy, contrasted and what he had wished and anticipated! Be that as it may, the impressions made upon his heart constantly are no more profound than those his 30th birthday celebration motivates. At 30, youth, with all it conceals and pardons, is gone until the end of time. The ideal opportunity for negligible tricking is past; the youthful stay away from you, or, in all likelihood admire you and entice you to become suggestive. You are a man and should give a record of yourself. Lew Wallace A man 30 years of age, I said to myself, ought to have his field of life all furrowed, and his planting all around done; for after that it is late spring.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Homo Habilis essays

Homo Habilis papers How would we portray early human conduct? Surely this is a discussion that has been contended more than once. It appears that there has been an agreement among archeologists and anthropologists that the most punctual type of human conduct was the creation of devices. It is commonly perceived that early Australopiths may have utilized simple instruments in much the manner in which current chimps do to cajole termites from that point homes, yet these where just designed sticks and twigs. (Feder, 1996 p.79) Researchers were searching for a primate that had the capacity to make a changeless instrument. Feder (1996) was sure this necessary expanded knowledge and a modern procedure of forethought.(p.79) These apparatuses where found as stone devices made by the early primate Homo habilis. Homo habilis, jack of all trades spoke to a significant defining moment in the development of people. The species showed up about 2.5million years back. Almost certainly, it advanced from Austalopithecus afarensis or africanus and the primary concern that separated it from early primates was the cerebrum size. This had expanded by more than 20 percent from prior primates however was still just around 33% the size of present day man. This was uncovered through skulls found in Africa, which showed an adjusted noggin coming about because of an expanded mind limit. (Mohammed, 2002) This expanded cerebrum size permitted Homo habilis to build up a trademark that is remarkable to man, the capacity to design instruments. Homo habilis set out to make instruments by intentionally pounding on rocks to split and piece them into valuable shapes. Oldawan devices, named by Louis and Mary Leakey, are the most seasoned stone devices found to date. The Leakeys made their disclosure in 1935. The instruments go back to some 2.5 million years (Feder, 1996). Oldawan depicts instruments that had a particular shape and were honed with a certain goal in mind. The name is gotten from the Olduvai Gorge territory in ... <!

Friday, August 21, 2020

Why Trickle Down Economic Works in Theory But not in Fact

Why Trickle Down Economic Works in Theory But not in Fact It is the Social Contract that individuals submit part of their power to the Government because the Government is supposed to be better at distributing the resources of the nation in ways that will benefit the individual more than if they would do those investments themselves.  What happens when the resources are taxes, and it is questionable if the Government knows best or not? Worse, it is questioned why they are not taking the best decisions for the individuals, while they know full well their policy will not affect them for the better, but for the worse.Trickle-down economics has long been the subject of arguments between political parties and experts. Read the article to learn why. WHAT DOES TRICKLE-DOWN ECONOMICS MEAN?By definition, trickle-down economics is a theory, the supporters of which believe that benefits for the wealthy will transfer, or trickle down, other actors in the economy. These benefits could take the form of tax cuts on corporations, high-income earners, tax r elief for capital gains and dividends.Trickle-down comes from the assumptions that agents in the economy such as investors, savers, and business owners are the ones that drive growth in an economy. It stipulates that they’ll use any extra wealth, generated from government regulations, such as tax cuts, to reinvest in businesses, thus expanding the economy. Stockholders will act upon planned acquisitions or buy stocks. Banks will increase loan offering thus transferring liquidity to the spenders. Business owners will create jobs. All of this growth is supposed to trickle down to employees, who, in their turn, will spend more and reinforce the economy. A rise in wages is supposed to further drive demand up and contribute to reinforcing the supply and demand cycle. HOW DOES IT WORK?In order to understand the theory of trickle-down economics, first you need to understand supply-side economics. What is supply-side economics?Supply-side is easy to understand when seen as a polar opposit e of Keynesian theory. Keynesianism stipulates that it is consumer demand that drives the economy. Consumers create need for products and services and offer money for them. That is supposed to be the factor that drives the decisions of the businesses (the supply) and thus, they are the original creator of growth. Therefore the Keynesian fiscal policy will support consumerism, and not just workers â€" consumers will be important regardless of whether they work or not. Infrastructure, benefits and education will be subject of great investments.Supply-side economics on the other side stipulates that increased supply is what will create economic growth. The drivers of that supply are capital, labor, entrepreneurship and land. Supply-side tax policies focuses on industry. Tax cuts and deregulation will be employed by the government to support businesses. Companies that benefit from this government support are supposed to create jobs. Hiring more workers overall is supposed to redistribut e the wealth from the businesses, through the wages to the workers, and, through spending, create flows back into the economy.The main course of action of supply-side economics is to create incentives for businesses to grow. Deregulation is supposed to eliminate restrictions to expansion and reduce the compliance costs. Businesses are then free to explore new fields and drive the economy up.Two types of tax cut are created. A corporate tax cut is supposed to free resources for businesses to hire more employees, invest in equipment and or increase their production of more goods and services.An income tax cut is supposed increase the absolute wage per hour ratio. It incentivizes workers demand of employment. More workers hired in the economy means higher production and better quality of service.What is the Laffer Curve?In order to understand better why lower taxes on the wealthy are connected to a boost of the economy, it will be helpful to explain the concept of the Laffer Curve.The concept is named after an economist called Arthur Laffer, who came up with the idea back in 1979.The Laffer Curve draws a relationship between tax cuts and government revenues. And that relationship is twofold. Immediately, Laffer stipulates there will be an arithmetic effect. Every dollar in tax cuts means one less dollar in government from the government’s budget. The second effect is supposed to be more longer-term. And that is, according to Laffer, the ‘economic’ effect.  Lower taxes increase the budgets, and therefore the spending, of taxpayers. It allows for higher production on the side of businesses who can now meet consumer demand. That will decrease unemployment, and lead to additional average increase in the household budget. More workers also means an increase in the tax base. Newly hired workers will be taxed, and that, in turn, will return the revenue to the government.How does trickle-down relate?Trickle-down theory is a special case supply-side economics, or a part of it. According to trickle-down, specific tax cuts are supposed to be targeted instead of just generally taking the side of businesses. As explained earlier, tax cuts will be provided to businesses, tax relieve will be applied to capital gains, and savings. Across-the-board tax cuts will not be a part of the strategy. Tax cuts will be provided to the more well-off, who are supposed to reinvest in the businesses and, with that, transfer funds to the less wealthy.Both trickle-down and supply-side economy can be explained via the Laffer Curve. It shows the exact relationship between the tax cuts, the economy growth, the rise of employment and the increase in the tax base â€" which is supposed to prove the wealth multiplication effect. Have in mind Arthur Laffer himself warns that this effect works is mostly applicable when taxes are in the Prohibitive Range. This is the tax range that starts from 100% taxation, down to a theoretical rate in the middle of the curve where taxes wil l not affect the businesses decision. In other words, an across-the-board tax cut for the wealthy is not necessary. An initial analysis is needed to establish if the current tax rate prevents businesses from actions that would grow the economy. WHO CREATED TRICKLE-DOWN ECONOMICS?There have been several times in history when regulations have been imposed by the government that provide tax cuts or tax relief to wealthy businesses and corporations in expectation to boost the economy in result. There is an argument to be made that those regulations were necessary at the time and those worked. Presidents Nixon and ReaganRonald Reagan is often named the creator of the trickle-down economy. President Reagan was, after two unsuccessful attempts to win the Republican Presidential nomination, elected for the president in1980, inheriting an economy that had just went through a very tough recession in the 1970’s marked by the worst stagnation America had ever experienced.Stagflation is a comb ination of three harmful economy factors a stagnation in the economic growth, high level of unemployment, and inflation. The average price of consumer good raises while at the same time the economy growth is limited. Usually demand decreases enough to halt inflation.Stagflation basically got its name during the 1973 1975 recession. Early signs of the recession were visible early into the presidential term of Richard Nixon. Nixon famously froze all wages and prices for 90 days. The Pay Board and Price Commission was appointed to approve any increases after afterwards â€" up until the 1972 presidential campaign. A 10% tariff on imports followed. Finally, Nixon removed the States from the Gold Standard. Raising the import prices caused GDP growth to slow down. By 1975 there had been five quarters when gross domestic product growth had been negative. In the beginning of summer in 1975, two months after the recession had ended unemployment peaked at 9%. Inflation was another issue when it raised from 3.5% to 9.5%.The Federal Reserves made several attempts to stop the stagflation but those attempts had the opposite effect. Between the years 1971 and 1978, they manipulated the price of fed funds rate to by raising it to fight inflation, then later lowering it to fight recession. That created an unstable climate for investors which meant the prices stayed high, even when the rates were low. Inflation skyrocketed to 13.3% by the end of the 1970’s.  Paul Volcker put an end to stagflation by raising the rate to 20% in the beginning of the 1980’s. And that created the 1980-82 recession.The ReaganomicsThe economics of the Reagan administration, known as Reaganomics, is supposed to fight the recession by reducing the governments influence on the economy. It is a laissez-faire approach to economics. Reagan believed capitalism and the free market will create growth. The government’s role would be diminished so that businesses, led by the principle ‘greed is good’ would have the freedom to save the economy.Reagans position is noticeably different his predecessors. Johnson and Nixon had trusted the governments role should lead to growth.On the contrary Reagan vows to decrease the growth of government spending, to cut income taxes and capital gains taxes, to decrease regulations on the industry and to halt the expansion of the money supply.President Reagan provides results on each of the four goals of his platform, although not fully. To a large extent they overcame inflation, but that should be mostly attributed to Reagan’s monetary policy, not his fiscal policy. At the same time Reagans tax cuts do end the recession.It is important to point out government spending isnt lowered. Instead of spending more on domestic programs where the government would support the population, the budget is eaten up by the military. As a result the debt rises threefold, from about a thousand billion in the beginning of the 1980’s to $2.857 trillion the end of the 1980’s. The tax cuts Reagan imposes do manage to bring up consumer demand. By the last year of Reagans mandate, the maximum tax rate became 28% for the unmarried individuals with a yearly income of $18,550 or more. Citizens making less money paid no taxes at all. There was a drop in the tax rate of more than 40% for individuals earning $108,000 or more. The tax brackets for inflation were indexed. Reagan moved these tax cuts to tax increases in other directions. Social Security payroll taxes as well as some excise taxes went through an increase. The corporate tax rate was dropped from 46% to 40%. The taxation of investments was changed. Government spending was supposed to be stopped. Instead, there was growth, although not as fast as the growth in spending during the predecessor’s term President Carter. During Reagan the growth was 2.5% a year, caused mostly be raising costs for the military. Social Security or Medicare payments were not changed. In fact, Reagans budgeted spending for the two programs was 22% of GDP. Thats higher budget than the usual 20%. In the beginning of his term Reagan removed the Nixon-imposed price regulations on domestic oil and gas. Those were considered to introduce an imbalance in free-market self-regulation that would have prevented inflation. Reagan deregulated other industries including the financial institutions and, by that, he contributed Savings and Loan Crisis in 1989. Reagan increased import barriers. When Reagan came to power, the measures imposed by Chairman Paul Volcker against inflation were already in place. Volcker used a brave monetary policy â€" he began raising the fed funds rate by a historic 20%. While these measures were beneficiary to fight off inflation, economic growth was affected. Unemployment went as high as 10.8% and stayed above 10% for the large part of the year.Watch this Crash Course video to get an interesting perspective of the Reagan presidency:The Bush-nomicsReagan is not the only Presi dent to employ trickle-down economics. President George W. Bush used similar tools to fight off the 2001 recession. The income taxes were cut by introducing the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act. The measures turned out to be successful in ending the recession by November of 2001. However unemployment was still an issue â€" it went as high as 6%. It is not rare that unemployment will linger at high levels after a crisis. Businesses will be unwilling to create jobs a long time after the unfriendly economic environment has changed. Bush then introduces another Act in 2003 â€" the The Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act.Temporarily the overall impression is that the tax cuts worked. However, the fact that the Federal Reserve lowered the fed funds rate could have contributed. It fell from 6% to 1%. It is a significant change and leaves it unclear if tax cuts caused the recovery or monetary policy did.According to trickle-down economics, presidents Reagan and Bu sh introduced tax cuts which should have affected the wealthy immediately, and citizens of all income levels, gradually. What happened in reality is the opposite. The income gap worsened. In the years between 1979 and 2005, household income after taxes for the bottom 20% of the population rose by 6%. That means there was growth. However, if we compare that to the top 20% of the population, we see the increase there reached 80%. The top 1% saw their budgets triple for the same period. That means the wealth created by trickle-down policies never did trickle down to less well-off parts of the population. Or, at least, by judging the wealth that did trickle down, too much was retained. WOULD TRICKLE-DOWN WORK TODAY?Recently, the idea that Reaganomics-like policies must be taken up once again are becoming popular. The ‘America great again’ campaign, popularized by President Donald Trump, Tea Party followers, and other Republicans advocate for further tax cuts on the wealthy as a way to fix the economy. But many say that while it could be argued that trickle-down worked in the 1980’s it could be very harmful today.One example is the effect tax cuts have on the federal budget â€" they would decrease the dollar-for-dollar tax to budget flow immediately. But businesses are supposed to get richer, higher more people, and when their salaries are taxed, that would increase the tax base and, with that, reimburse taxes to the budget. However, that theory does not factor in the lag between the tax cuts and job creation. Additionally, The Laffer Curve proves that cutting taxes only increases government revenue up to a point â€" after a certain threshold cutting taxes will harm the budget. During Reagan’s term the higher taxes were at 70%, the effects would be much different when the taxes are under 50%. As the situation is today in the world, the wealthiest 85 people around the globe have just as much as the poorest 3.5 billion of the population â€" that is roughly ha lf the worlds entire population. This is the stark headline of a report from Oxfam ahead of the World Economic Forum at Davos:‘Globally, the richest individuals and companies hide trillions of dollars away from the tax man in a web of tax havens around the world it is estimated that $21 trillion is held unrecorded and off-shore;In the US, financial deregulation directly correlates to the increase in the income share of the top 1 per cent which is now at its highest level since the eve of the Great Depression;In India, the number of billionaires increase tenfold in the past decade, aided by a highly regressive tax structure and the wealthy exploiting their government connections, while spending on the poorest remains remarkably low;In Europe, austerity has been imposed on the poor and middle classes under huge pressure from financial markets whose wealthy investors have benefited from state bailouts of financial institutions;In Africa, global corporations particularly those in ex tractive industries exploit their influence to avoid taxes and royalties, reducing the resources available to governments to fight poverty.’It appears the wealthier no longer reinvest back into jobs. Tax cuts appear to have the opposite effect. The gap between the rich and the poor is rising. The model of trickle-down economics is unsustainable because the effects cannot be measured or controlled. While the wealthier are becoming more resourceful than they were during the Reagan Era, the poor lack the funds to pay for food, health care, housing, education and other important assets that could help bridge the equality gap. At the same time governments are continuing play with the idea of supply-side levers in order to revive the economy, when there is abundant proof the lower class has to be supported instead.The reason is twofold. Partially, it is the unwillingness of politicians to consider new ideas. It is a habit, a status-quo, to always consider the needs of businesses and co rporations first. And the second reason is, governments are set on pursuing numbers, economic growth and high competitiveness regardless of the social impact a policy could have for the citizens. Individuals success is measured by their income, their purchasing power and other numeric values. Economic success of governments is also measured in numbers. GDP, GNP, unemployment, inflation, debt… It is alarming that the disregard of the government is giving rise to populist politicians with questionable strategies. WHY ARE WE TALKING TRICKLE-DOWN AGAIN?The issue of trickle-down economics is once again gaining traction because of some of President Trump’s political decisions. On the side of the Republican party, the idea of trickle-down economics is still solid. In fact, it is gaining popularity. On December 22, 2017, President Donald Trump acts upon his campaign promise to ‘Make America Great Again’ by signing the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. By signing the Act, Trump essentially cuts the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% since the beginning of 2018. For individuals, the tax rate drops to 37%. Trumps tax plan includes a complex set of measures, including cuts in income tax rates, doubling the standard deduction, and removing the personal tax exemptions. There are different rules when it comes to deadlines, too. The corporate cuts are supposed to last while the changes for the individuals have an expiration date â€" they will last until the end of 2025.Watch here a Vox video that explains the tax cut via a cereal metaphor. It is worth seeing.According to the Tax Policy Center the earnings of the top 1% would enjoy a larger tax cut percentage than individuals with lower income. By the year 2027, those in the lowest 20% of income levels will end up paying higher taxes.According to the president, the tax cut is supposed to create growth to compensate for the debt increase. However, according to the Joint Committee on Taxation the Act will cost $1 trillion to the bu dget even after the compensation is factored in. CONCLUSION It all boils down to this question: Who truly drives the economy?While it sounds like trickle-down makes sense, there is data to support the fact that the wealthy do not allow the extra funds, left over from tax cuts, to trickle down to the low-income citizens. They retain the wealth. There are arguments to support the theory, that if the support is forwarded to those who need cash the most, they will spend that, out of necessity, and will, in fact, boost the economy, by driving transactions up. Still, for various reasons, the question about trickle-down economics is brought up again and again. History has the bad habit of repeating itself. It is up to society to put pressure on the decision makers to make the right decision.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Notes On Common Sense Economics - 1441 Words

James Gwartney’s book, Common Sense Economics, is designed for those who are taking beginning steps to understand the basics of economics. It also provides actual concrete changes that could be made in the economy. This novel gives insight to the bigger picture that involves political rules and policies that go along with that. The context of the book aims to explain why nations prosper depending on people’s understanding of necessary economic arrangements. There are ten elements of economics, seven sources of economic progress, the role of the government, and twelve key elements of practical personal finance. James Gwartney even acknowledges what he wants students to get out of this text which is that: It will help more advanced students of economics and business pull together the big picture. Advanced student, including some at the graduate level, are often so busy with graphs, formulas, models, and technical mathematical that they fail to understand the really important lessons of economics. Finally, an experienced business executive or a poly maker can also learn much of value from this book. Even those who are highly successful at their jobs often underestimate the far-reaching, typically unintended effects that political rules and policies have on the broader economic health of people and nations (Gwartney ix-x). The information in this book will challenge college students to think more seriously about the really important implications of economics—knowledge that willShow MoreRelatedRisk Return Analysis1000 Words   |  4 Pagesstrong company that has shown the ability to grow, and create dividends for its stock holders consistently. 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The poor man sighed sorely, and said, ‘Children be still!’1 As individuals within a greater society, the peasants of the seventeenth century provided themselves and the remainder of the community with economic and agricultural sustenance in accordance to their constant backbreaking labor and pitifully inferior lifestyle. According to J.F.C. HarrisonRead MoreJohn Millar s Passage The Origin Of The Distinction Of Ranks1442 Words   |  6 Pagesassociation of the moral-economic and how the slavery isn t advantageous to each other for various legitimate reasons. In the beginning Millar diverges into the topic upon the relationship between those of the master and its servant which is very interesting based on their position of power and financially, they are on two different sides of the scale. Millar goes into 3 methods in which the Master Servant relationship evolved in history over time. The first one is the cause of economic purposes. The masterRead MoreArticle Analysis : Living Life Without Traveling 1347 Words   |  6 Pagesarray of virtues and cultures that range from exciting and thought provoking to even depressing. However, while Steves notes the positives that precipitate from the aforementioned good travel, he also expresses his disappointment in the many Americans who fail to partake in this enlightened practice. Instead, driven by short term goals and individual economic success, Steves notes many people refrain entirely from travel, or simply choose to travel in a demanding and ethnocentric manner. AccordingRead More432 Obj ectives Wk 11 2002740 Words   |  3 Pagesimplementing a firm’s strategy Suggested Review Reading for next Class RWJ, Chapter 18 Questions for Next Case (November 18, 2002*, Avon Products) * Note change in date in response to student preferences (1) Evaluate Avon’s investment and financing decisions in the late 1980’s. Why was Avon restructuring its business in 1988? Did the changes make sense? (2) Evaluate Avon’s financial condition in mid-1988. Why was Avon reducing its dividend? (3) What was the purpose of the exchange offer? (4)Read MoreTyranny And The Social Wellbeing Of Citizens1750 Words   |  7 Pagesof despotic oppression that threatens the social wellbeing of citizens. Yet another notable differences arises in the approach of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels when they were commissioned to write The Communist Manifesto, which offers a sort of economic tyranny. The key differences in each author’s definition and evaluation of tyranny can be explained through the reasons for producing their respective works, as well as the lens through which they each viewed the societies they were observing. Read MoreSummary Of Alien Nation : Common Sense About America s Immigration Disaster1317 Words   |  6 PagesAnnotated bibliography Reflection paper Brimelow, Peter. Alien nation: common sense about America’s immigration disaster. (1995). This article talks about immigration and its consequences in America. In addition to this, the paper talks about the reasons behind the ballooning level of immigrants in amerce. Some of the reasons that the article outlines include; search for better employment in the US as they fear their nations which have low levels of employment, escape war from their nationsRead MoreThe Document Common Sense By Thomas Paine1714 Words   |  7 Pages The document Common Sense by Thomas Paine was written in 1775, and published in 1776. Though, in order to be shared with the public, Thomas Paine had to be inspired first. Some of the more common inspirations were derived from the ideas of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. The main points of Thomas Paine’s document were to separate from English rule and to form a democratic nation. Some of John Locke’s most common ideas of the human nature were that humans needed independence to thrive, a statement

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Roy Chapman Andrews - A Profile of the Famous Paleontologist

Name: Roy Chapman Andrews Born/Died: 1884-1960 Nationality: American Dinosaurs Discovered: Oviraptor, Velociraptor, Saurornithoides; also discovered numerous prehistoric mammals and other animals About Roy Chapman Andrews Although he had a long, active career in paleontology--he was director of the prestigious American Museum of Natural History from 1935 to 1942--Roy Chapman Andrews is best known for his fossil-hunting excursions to Mongolia in the early 1920s. At this time, Mongolia was a truly exotic destination, not yet dominated by China, virtually inaccessible by mass transport, and rife with political instability. During his expeditions, Andrews used both automobiles and camels to traverse the hostile terrain, and he had a number of narrow escapes that added to his reputation as a dashing adventurer (he was later said to have been the inspiration for Steven Spielbergs Indiana Jones movies). Andrews Mongolian expeditions were not only newsworthy; they also immeasurably advanced  the worlds knowledge  about dinosaurs. Andrews discovered numerous dinosaur fossils at the Flaming Cliffs formation in Mongolia, including the type specimens of Oviraptor and Velociraptor, but today hes most famous for unearthing the first indisputable evidence of dinosaur eggs (before the 1920s, scientists were unsure if dinosaurs laid eggs or gave birth to live young). Even then, he managed to make a huge (if understandable) blunder: Andrews believed his Oviraptor specimen had stolen the eggs of a nearby Protoceratops, but in fact thisegg thief turned out to be hatching its own young! ​Oddly enough, when he embarked for Mongolia, Andrews did not have dinosaurs or other prehistoric fauna uppermost in his mind. ​Along with his fellow paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn, Andrews believed that the ultimate ancestors of humans originated in Asia, rather than Africa, and he wanted to find indisputable fossil evidence to support this theory. Although its possible that an early offshoot of hominids branched off into Asia millions of years ago, the bulk of the evidence today  is that human beings did in fact originate in Africa. Roy Chapman Andrews is most often associated with his dinosaur discoveries, but he was responsible for  excavating and/or naming a respectable number of prehistoric mammals as well, including a specimen of the giant terrestrial grazer  Indricotherium and the giant  Eocene predator Andrewsarchus (which was named by a paleontologist on one of Andrews central Asian expeditions in honor of his fearless leader). As far as we know, these two mammals were the largest terrestrial herbivore and the largest terrestrial carnivore, respectively, ever to roam the face of the earth.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Slave Crucible Analysis - 1266 Words

â€Å"The Slave Crucibles† and â€Å"A Federal Assault† provide different perspectives on the experiences of slaves. â€Å"The Slave Crucibles† contributes personal insight into the different aspects of the lives of slaves while â€Å"A Federal Assault† exhibits a generalized viewpoint on the effects of laws such as the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 on the majority of the slave population. Both pieces of literature demonstrate the injustices and demeaning treatment towards African Americans during the 19th century. Pargas’ â€Å"The Slave Crucibles† is structured to provide the personal experiences of slaves by including specific examples and testimonies from those who endured slavery or had first hand encounters with enslaved African Americans. By including such†¦show more content†¦However, fictive kin and these new established relationships on shared experiences did not completely extinguish the feelings of longing for loved ones or diminish the oppression faced by these people. Reunion with family members was one of the major motives for interstate migrants to escape but sometimes it proved to be more difficult than expected because migrants came from longer distances. Therefore, when attempts to escape were made they were more permanent and â€Å"...fugitives were not intending to ‘visit’ loved ones but rather escape their new destinations for good†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Pargas 243). These feelings of depression and isolation, removal from loved ones, and demeaning treatment incited many slaves to escape. Escaping was never easy and there were laws set in place to punish those who tried to do so. These laws, specifically the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, and their effects are closely examined in Horton’s article, â€Å"A Federal Assault.† Horton provides a more generalized approach and the use of anecdotes is present but is not as intense as in â€Å"The Slave Crucibles.† Horton presents the actions taken by the government and the states in order to deal with fugitives. He examines the impact of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 on the general slave population and the people associated with it. Information is also presented on what was done in order to combat the Fugitive Slave Act and allow African Americans to experience the freedom that theyShow MoreRelatedAccusation And Defense Of The Salem Witchcraft Trials1658 Words   |  7 PagesHistory 1301-73001-73002 JOE L. MCCAMBRIDGE - HISTORY 1301-1302 One of the most infamous Trial in history took place on March 1, 1692. According, to the Library of Congress, Massachusetts authorities catechized Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne, and an Indian Slave, Tituba regarding their practice in witchcraft. The trial resulted in more than 150 men and women in and around Salem jailed on charges of practicing Witchcraft and Sorceries. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Should a moment of silence be legal in public scho Essay Example For Students

Should a moment of silence be legal in public scho Essay ols?In 1962 the Supreme Court decided that public schools did not have the power to authorize school prayer. This decision made public school in the U.S. more atheistic than many European nations. For example, crosses still hang on the classroom walls in Poland, and the Ten Commandments are displayed in Hungary. There are prayers held at the beginning of legislative and judicial sessions and every President has mentioned a divine power in his inaugural speech. In keeping with a spirit of religious freedom as stated in the First Amendment, there is no reason why students should not be allowed to have a moment of silence during the school day when they can pray or do as they choose.The case Engel v. Vitale in 1962 decided that school prayer is unconstitutional. With this case, it was pointed out that the students were to voluntarily recite the following prayer:Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parents, our teachers, and our country. The court ruled that this rule was unconstitutional according to the First Amendments establishment clause, which states Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. In response to the Engel v.Vitale case some schools adopted a moment of silence. In 1963, another case was brought before the court dealing with school prayer, Abington School District v. Schempp. The Schempp family challenged a law in Pennsylvania requiring the students to say ten verses of the Bible before school. These readings from the Bible were declared unconstitutional. Members of the board felt reading the Bible would give the children more moral values. The Schempp family strongly disagreed. Members of Congress attempted to find a compromise. From this effort came the adoption of the moment of silence, which is guaranteed by the First Amendments Free Exercise clause. Six states now permit silent moments-Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama. Silent prayer was ruled constitutional in 1985 as long as it had no religious intent or purpose. (Newsweek, October 3, 1994)Prayer has been banned in schools for thirty-three years. The moment of silence has been ruled constitutional, however. Every student fills a moment of silence in a different way: through song, a prayer, or a memory.